During the events of September , the Portuguese imagined East Timor. Its small size, its distance, the existence of a big, dictatorial, and Muslim enemy Indonesia , and the denunciation of an unjust international order in which the strong the United States fail to protect the weak were the narrative elements for the construction of a mythical place Such hopes may have been fuelled further by the fact that its first government was formed by FRETILIN, a political party whose rhetoric still contained calls for genuine social justice, and one that entered into negotiations with its powerful Australian neighbours over the exploration of oil and gas in the Timor Sea fully prepared to demand its rights.
Here we had the opportunity to cast the East Timorese as taking up the rhetorical arms against the Antipodean bulwark of the hegemonic world order, and offering a glimpse of the possibility of an alternative — an island of hope in a sea of political conformity. In Europe, the notion — in fact, the sentiment — of national honour provokes smiles of pity or stupefaction in two out of three unders. Cardoso has resided in Portugal since he went there to study, and where he found himself when his country was invaded in In this case, not only does the narrator suggest the constructed and hence always dubious nature of an East Timorese national identity personified in the figure of the Maubere for which a bitter struggle is being fought, but he also confesses to his unease when he is called to confront the human sacrifices being made in the name of independence.
These were found in the area in Lisbon where East Timorese refugees were housed following the Indonesian invasion, and of which the narrator states: His fear is that by facing these refugees he will be forced to acknowledge the ultimate consequences others are prepared to incur by being identified as belonging to one side of an antagonistic binary, and therefore to be reminded of his own refusal to wholeheartedly join a communal struggle whose final objective he may in fact desire.
It is a reluctance that regards the loss of individual freedom inherent in adhering to a common cause as somehow counterproductive because it is supposedly a cause that seeks to achieve precisely that — freedom. In all of his five novels to date, the half-island of Timor is the site of constant arrivals and departures, many of which ultimately contribute to a culture and an identity that are apt to be understood as perfect examples of a postcolonial hybridity that is to be welcomed as counteracting calls for identitary purity that are dangerously exclusionary. In this act, readers Portuguese?
All the time, however, the reader and more importantly, the postcolonial critic does little or nothing to undermine the exploitative forces of hegemony at the sites from which they originate, and instead becomes complicit in the act of what Nancy Fraser Almeida, Miguel Vale de. New York and Oxford: Retrieved 30 July, Retrieved 1 August, Retrieved August 23, http: Fonseca, Rui Brito da. Frederico Westphalen 13 Parsing the Politics of Crisis after Polanyi.
O grande Sismo e Tsunami de 1755 em Portugal (M 8.7/9.0)
London and New York: Santos, Boaventuda de Sousa. Colonialism, Postcolonialism, and Inter-identity. Silva, Kelly Cristiane da. Oppositional Discourses and Postcolonial Theory. The coming together of the two latter poles of this conflict represent the hope of overcoming the other one, thereby defeating the forces of neo-liberalism without losing the individual freedoms that may have been at risk by the unilateral victory of the proponents of social protection. However, I believe that what is of paramount importance is our awareness of the possibility that exoticised notions of East Timorese literature may emerge intermittently in critical readings that are otherwise sensitive to this issue, as well as in others that may be oblivious to their exoticisation.
Studying far field effects, as presented in this paper, is advantageous in establishing constraints on source location and strike orientation because trans-oceanic tsunamis are less influenced by near source bathymetry and are unaffected by triggered submarine landslides at the source. Source location, fault orientation and bathymetry are the main elements governing transatlantic tsunami propagation to sites along the U.
East Coast, much more than distance from the source and continental shelf width. Results of our far and near-field tsunami simulations based on relative amplitude comparison limit the earthquake source area to a region located south of the Gorringe Bank in the center of the Horseshoe Plain. East Coast from the Lisbon tsunami. Additional simulations to assess tsunami hazard to the U.
East Coast from possible future earthquakes along the Azores—Iberia plate boundary indicate that sources west of the MTR and in the Gulf of Cadiz may affect the southeastern coast of the U. The Azores—Iberia plate boundary west of the MTR is characterized by strike—slip faults, not thrusts, but the Gulf of Cadiz may have thrust faults. Higher resolution near-shore bathymetry along the U. East Coast and the Caribbean as well as a detailed study of potential tsunami sources in the central west part of the Horseshoe Plain are necessary to verify our simulation results.
A Case of Triggered Onshore Rupture? It has been widely recognized, both in classical and in modern studies, that the Lisbon earthquake of was a multiple event, composed of three shocks separated by a few minutes see, e. Attempts to constrain the location of the source have led to a diversity of proposals, reflecting apparent contradictions in the data.
The tsunami and damage along the south and southwest Iberian coast and in Morocco favor an offshore source, whereas the presence of an additional zone of strong shaking in the Lower Tagus Valley LTV , near Lisbon, favors a more northerly location. By combining the contemporary accounts with intensity data from other earthquakes, we favor a compound source with a large distance between the faults. We propose that, although the mainshock was offshore, the resulting stress changes induced the rupture of the LTV fault, at a distance on the order of km but subject to large uncertainty in the offshore location , a few minutes after the mainshock.
We favor this model, rather than site effects causing high intensities in the Lisbon area, because the highest intensities show a negative correlation to soft soil. Several other phenomena described in the eyewitness accounts can also be explained by the local rupture now proposed, such as a tsunamilike wave in the Tagus River, ground deformation affecting the course of the Tagus River, and the spatial pattern of damaging aftershocks. This paper is about the interpretation of the Lisbon earthquake as a historic accident. The paper is divided in two main parts: Especially a comparison is highlighted, the reaction to the Sumatra earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami in and today, as, contrary to what happened immediately after, the event did not cause a discourse.
Also compared to other historical events mentioned, the Lisbon earthquake remains the only historic accident, and one of the birth dates of modernity. Some key aspects are discussed, as the issue of ruins, or of rebuilding, in context of the 18th century and today. Overall, the accent lays on the view from the Humanities, not of earthquake engineering, and reviews such views at the events and publications about the earthquake. This is also the case for an event like a tsunami.
The use of high resolution models can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas which complemented with other data such as the type of buildings, location of prioritary equipments, etc. In the framework of FP6 SCHEMA project these concepts are being applied to different test sites and a detailed evaluation of the vulnerability of buildings and people to a tsunami event is being evaluated. Within this site two specific locations are being evaluated: The earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, took place on 1 November , the catholic holiday of All Saints, around In the case of the extreme event the selected source for simulation corresponds to an interpretation of the origins of the earthquake proposed by Baptista et al In this study it is suggest that the tsunami event had two sources: The other two sources are based on a study done by Omira et al regarding the design of a Sea-level Tsunami Detection Network for the Gulf of Cadiz.
In the framework of this study there are analyzed different areas of seismic activity in the South of Portugal and proposed some possible earthquake sources and characteristics. As a result of the study detailed inundation maps associated to the different events and to different tide levels were produced.
As a result of the combination of these maps with the available information of the city infrastructures building types, roads and streets characteristics, prioritary buildings, etc. Tsunami Source Determination and its Validation The Lisbon Earthquake of November 1, , one of the most catastrophic events that has ever occurred in Portugal, Spain, or Morocco, caused severe damage and many casualties. The tsunami generated by this earthquake is well documented in historical accounts, it was reported throughout the North Atlantic Ocean, as it reached not only Portugal, Spain, and Morocco, but also the Madeira and Azores Archipelagos, England, Ireland, and the Caribbean.
In spite of the importance of this event, the source of the tsunami remains unknown. In this paper, the authors reevaluate some of the historical tsunami travel times obtained by previous authors. Based on these times, wave ray analysis is used to determine the location of the tsunami source area. These results, combined with turbidites obtained by previous authors at the Tagus and Horseshoe Abyssal Plains, lead to the conclusion that the source of the Lisbon Tsunami could be located in the area of the Gorringe Bank.
Then, a hydrodynamic simulation is carried out with this area presupposed as the source. The numerical model results provide good agreement when compared with both historical and sedimental records. However, in the past, the Gorringe Bank has been dismissed as the source of this tsunami for several reasons.
Therefore, these issues are discussed and discredited. As a consequence of all these facts, it can be concluded that the origin of the Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami could be located in the area of the Gorringe Bank. The seismic source was computed with the homogeneous elastic half space approach. Modelling results agree with historical reports. Synthetic flood areas correspond to the sites where there are morphological and sedimentary evidences of two known major events that stroke Lisbon: Many people, attending the religious offices of All Hallows, were killed by the collapse of churches.
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Some took refuge on the quays of the Tagus, attempting to escape the fall of debris from collapsing buildings and to flee on boats: Fire outbreaks, lit by houses collapsing on their kitchen fire, set the town to flames, which raged for almost one week. The event triggered a competition between Scientific Institutions and between Gazettes to provide their members or readers with original accounts: In that case, thanks to the speed at which the information now travels, and constraint provided by photography and video-movies, the result has been the gathering of a rich array of accurate observations and data.
At variance, in , under the escalation of the competition between institutions or journals, with a small number of qualified observers and slow travel of letters conveying the accounts, the exaggerations of compilers were let loose. The reliability of the testimonies suffered in the process: The Andaman-Sumatra earthquake and tsunami have awoken a public awareness of the risk of tsunami.
The November 1st, tsunami caused by the Great Lisbon Earthquake, remains the only destructive event of the kind on the European Atlantic shores to have been described in some detail in the past, partly supplemented by the tsunami of March 31st, The primary accounts of the event are in no danger to loose their documentary importance: But the data gathered from such reports are so dispersed that they cannot be applied without a critical analysis.
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An intermediate report The subproject "Review of the historical seismicity in the Gulf of Cadiz area before the 1 Nov. In this report, which corresponds to the whole period of the execution of the project , are referred the main results obtained. The execution of this project is under the responsibility of the National Institute for Meteorology and Geophysics of Portugal and the National Geographic Institute of Spain.
It is believed that the long-term precedent research carried out in Portugal immediately before the beginning of this project Moreira, ; ; Runa e Morais Freire, ; Themudo Barata et al. Anyway, research in libraries and archives continued both in Portugal and Spain during the period covered by this project and several reports were produced showing the results. Meetings to examine the state-of-the-art of the project and define the methodology, in which participated Dr. Stucchi, coordinator of the project "Review of historical seismicity in Europe", Dr.
Paola Albini, historian who assists Dr. Stucchi, the Portuguese and Spanish groups were held in Lisbon in and In and was paid special attention to the research in archives and libraries in Algarve and Alentejo - the southernmost provinces of Portugal - the most affected regions by earthquakes which occurred in the period covered by the project. In Spain a research was carried out in in several archives and libraries of the southwestern part of the country Moreira, In the last part of and was made an intense research in the National Archive of Torre do Tombo in Lisbon, looking for documentation of the main convents and for documentation left by diarists, journalists, members of the diplomatic body and other erudite people, following the recommendations of Dr.
Stucchi in his note of June "Remarks and recommendations after the first year". In all cases where there is historical evidence for devastating tsunamis, as is the case of the southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, there is a need for quantitative hazard tsunami assessment to support spatial planning.
With this in mind, we investigated the inundation extent, run-up and water depths, of a like event on the region of Huelva, located on the Spanish southwestern coast, one of the regions that was affected in the past by several high energy events, as proved by historical documents and sedimentological data. Sensitivity tests were performed for a single source in order to understand the relevance and influence of the source parameters in the inundation extent and the fundamental impact parameters. We show that a like event will have a dramatic impact in a large area close to Huelva inundating an area between 82 and 92 km2 and reaching maximum run-up around 5 m.
In this sense our results show that small variations on the characteristics of the tsunami source are not too significant for the impact assessment. We show that the maximum flow depth and the maximum run-up increase with the average slip on the source, while the strike of the fault is not a critical factor as Huelva is significantly far away from the potential sources identified up to now. We also show that the maximum flow depth within the inundated area is very dependent on the tidal level, while maximum run-up is less affected, as a consequence of the complex morphology of the area.
In fact, one of the most important cities in Europe was almost destroyed and a large number of people died due to the buildings collapse, fire and tsunami effects. The scientific, philosophical, religious and moral consequences of the disaster were discussed and the Lisbon earthquake was a catalyst for relevant changes. At the epoch, the risk analysis and management concepts were still not created as disciplines.
However, the Lisbon earthquake can also be considered as a very strong landmark in the genesis of the risk management applied to disasters as it is now considered. Based on historical sources and narratives this evidence can be shown: The author describes the contributions that can be detected in what concerns: The great Lisbon Earthquake of 1 November is the main destructive tsunamigenic event recorded.
Estimates of run-up in Morocco are seldom included in publications, maybe for want of reliable historical data to control the simulations.
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This paper revisits some early accounts, transmitted as translations to European Chanceries, Scientific Societies and Newspapers. A critical analysis of the documents leads us to conclude that the Lisbon earthquake was overestimated because of amalgamation with a later Rifian earthquake. Then, the overestimation of the tsunami through worst interpretation of the scant data available appeared only reasonable, while the moderate measurements or interpretations were not given their due attention.
In Morocco the amplitude of the tsunami i. This age-old overestimation of both the earthquake and tsunami is detrimental to the evaluation of the risk for coastal people and activities. Whereas historical sources mention tsunami waves and describe inundation in Lisbon, field evidence from this event has been found only along the Algarve coast and the Spanish Atlantic coast in the south.
Our observations in the Cabo da Roca-Cascais area west of Lisbon resulted in the discovery of several very significant tsunami relics in the form of single large boulders, boulder ridges, pebbles and shells high above the modern storm level. Deposition of large amounts of sand by the tsunami waves has intensified eolian rock sculpturing.
Abrasion of soil and vegetation still visible in the landscape may point to the great Lisbon event of only some years ago, but radiocarbon and ESR datings also yielded older data. Therefore, we have evidence that the Portuguese coastline has suffered more than one strong tsunami in the Younger Holocene. The shock waves of the event reflected the basic ideological traits of the eighteenth century. For the first time in the western world, the press helped to create the illusion of proximity and unity among the peoples of different European nations.